------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.3.2
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Important changes since 2.3.0:
Installation
============
* The Agda-executable package has been removed.
The executable is now provided as part of the Agda package.
* The Emacs mode no longer depends on haskell-mode or GHCi.
* Compilation of Emacs mode Lisp files.
You can now compile the Emacs mode Lisp files by running "agda-mode
compile". This command is run by "make install".
Compilation can, in some cases, give a noticeable speedup.
WARNING: If you reinstall the Agda mode without recompiling the
Emacs Lisp files, then Emacs may continue using the old, compiled
files.
Pragmas and Options
===================
* The --without-K check now reconstructs constructor parameters.
New specification of --without-K:
If the flag is activated, then Agda only accepts certain
case-splits. If the type of the variable to be split is D pars ixs,
where D is a data (or record) type, pars stands for the parameters,
and ixs the indices, then the following requirements must be
satisfied:
* The indices ixs must be applications of constructors (or literals)
to distinct variables. Constructors are usually not applied to
parameters, but for the purposes of this check constructor
parameters are treated as other arguments.
* These distinct variables must not be free in pars.
* Irrelevant arguments are printed as _ by default now. To turn on
printing of irrelevant arguments, use option
--show-irrelevant
* New: Pragma NO_TERMINATION_CHECK to switch off termination checker
for individual function definitions and mutual blocks.
The pragma must precede a function definition or a mutual block.
Examples (see test/succeed/NoTerminationCheck.agda):
1. Skipping a single definition: before type signature.
{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
a : A
a = a
2. Skipping a single definition: before first clause.
b : A
{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
b = b
3. Skipping an old-style mutual block: Before 'mutual' keyword.
{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
mutual
c : A
c = d
d : A
d = c
4. Skipping a new-style mutual block: Anywhere before a type
signature or first function clause in the block
i : A
j : A
i = j
{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
j = i
The pragma cannot be used in --safe mode.
Language
========
* Let binding record patterns
record _×_ (A B : Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
fst : A
snd : B
open _×_
let (x , (y , z)) = t
in u
will now be interpreted as
let x = fst t
y = fst (snd t)
z = snd (snd t)
in u
Note that the type of t needs to be inferable. If you need to provide
a type signature, you can write the following:
let a : ...
a = t
(x , (y , z)) = a
in u
* Pattern synonyms
A pattern synonym is a declaration that can be used on the left hand
side (when pattern matching) as well as the right hand side (in
expressions). For example:
pattern z = zero
pattern ss x = suc (suc x)
f : ℕ -> ℕ
f z = z
f (suc z) = ss z
f (ss n) = n
Pattern synonyms are implemented by substitution on the abstract
syntax, so definitions are scope-checked but not type-checked. They
are particularly useful for universe constructions.
* Qualified mixfix operators
It is now possible to use a qualified mixfix operator by qualifying the first
part of the name. For instance
import Data.Nat as Nat
import Data.Bool as Bool
two = Bool.if true then 1 Nat.+ 1 else 0
* Sections [Issue 735]. Agda now parses anonymous modules as sections:
module _ {a} (A : Set a) where
data List : Set a where
[] : List
_∷_ : (x : A) (xs : List) → List
module _ {a} {A : Set a} where
_++_ : List A → List A → List A
[] ++ ys = ys
(x ∷ xs) ++ ys = x ∷ (xs ++ ys)
test : List Nat
test = (5 ∷ []) ++ (3 ∷ [])
In general, now the syntax
module _ parameters where
declarations
is accepted and has the same effect as
private
module M parameters where
declarations
open M public
for a fresh name M.
* Instantiating a module in an open import statement [Issue 481]. Now accepted:
open import Path.Module args [using/hiding/renaming (...)]
This only brings the imported identifiers from Path.Module into scope,
not the module itself! Consequently, the following is pointless, and raises
an error:
import Path.Module args [using/hiding/renaming (...)]
You can give a private name M to the instantiated module via
import Path.Module args as M [using/hiding/renaming (...)]
open import Path.Module args as M [using/hiding/renaming (...)]
Try to avoid 'as' as part of the arguments. 'as' is not a keyword;
the following can be legal, although slightly obfuscated Agda code:
open import as as as as as as
* Implicit module parameters can be given by name. E.g.
open M {namedArg = bla}
This feature has been introduced in Agda 2.3.0 already.
* Multiple type signatures sharing a same type can now be written as a single
type signature.
one two : ℕ
one = suc zero
two = suc one
Goal and error display
======================
* Meta-variables that were introduced by hidden argument `arg' are now
printed as _arg_number instead of just _number. [Issue 526]
* Agda expands identifiers in anonymous modules when printing.
Should make some goals nicer to read. [Issue 721]
* When a module identifier is ambiguous, Agda tells you if one
of them is a data type module. [Issues 318, 705]
Type checking
=============
* Improved coverage checker. The coverage checker splits on
arguments that have constructor or literal pattern, committing
to the left-most split that makes progress.
Consider the lookup function for vectors:
data Fin : Nat → Set where
zero : {n : Nat} → Fin (suc n)
suc : {n : Nat} → Fin n → Fin (suc n)
data Vec (A : Set) : Nat → Set where
[] : Vec A zero
_∷_ : {n : Nat} → A → Vec A n → Vec A (suc n)
_!!_ : {A : Set}{n : Nat} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
(x ∷ xs) !! zero = x
(x ∷ xs) !! suc i = xs !! i
In Agda up to 2.3.0, this definition is rejected unless we add
an absurd clause
[] !! ()
This is because the coverage checker committed on splitting
on the vector argument, even though this inevitably lead to
failed coverage, because a case for the empty vector [] is missing.
The improvement to the coverage checker consists on committing
only on splits that have a chance of covering, since all possible
constructor patterns are present. Thus, Agda will now split
first on the Fin argument, since cases for both zero and suc are
present. Then, it can split on the Vec argument, since the
empty vector is already ruled out by instantiating n to a suc _.
* Instance arguments resolution will now consider candidates which
still expect hidden arguments. For example:
record Eq (A : Set) : Set where
field eq : A → A → Bool
open Eq {{...}}
eqFin : {n : ℕ} → Eq (Fin n)
eqFin = record { eq = primEqFin }
testFin : Bool
testFin = eq fin1 fin2
The type-checker will now resolve the instance argument of the eq
function to eqFin {_}. This is only done for hidden arguments, not
instance arguments, so that the instance search stays non-recursive.
* Constraint solving: Upgraded Miller patterns to record patterns. [Issue 456]
Agda now solves meta-variables that are applied to record patterns.
A typical (but here, artificial) case is:
record Sigma (A : Set)(B : A -> Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
fst : A
snd : B fst
test : (A : Set)(B : A -> Set) ->
let X : Sigma A B -> Sigma A B
X = _
in (x : A)(y : B x) -> X (x , y) ≡ (x , y)
test A B x y = refl
This yields a constraint of the form
_X A B (x , y) := t[x,y]
(with t[x,y] = (x, y)) which is not a Miller pattern.
However, Agda now solves this as
_X A B z := t[fst z,snd z].
* Changed: solving recursive constraints. [Issue 585]
Until 2.3.0, Agda sometimes inferred values that did not pass the
termination checker later, or would even make Agda loop. To prevent this,
the occurs check now also looks into the definitions of the current mutual
block, to avoid constructing recursive solutions. As a consequence, also
terminating recursive solutions are no longer found automatically.
This effects a programming pattern where the recursively computed
type of a recursive function is left to Agda to solve.
mutual
T : D -> Set
T pattern1 = _
T pattern2 = _
f : (d : D) -> T d
f pattern1 = rhs1
f pattern2 = rhs2
This might no longer work from now on.
See examples test/fail/Issue585*.agda
* Less eager introduction of implicit parameters. [Issue 679]
Until Agda 2.3.0, trailing hidden parameters were introduced eagerly
on the left hand side of a definition. For instance, one could not
write
test : {A : Set} -> Set
test = \ {A} -> A
because internally, the hidden argument {A : Set} was added to the
left-hand side, yielding
test {_} = \ {A} -> A
which raised a type error. Now, Agda only introduces the trailing
implicit parameters it has to, in order to maintain uniform function
arity. For instance, in
test : Bool -> {A B C : Set} -> Set
test true {A} = A
test false {B = B} = B
Agda will introduce parameters A and B in all clauses, but not C,
resulting in
test : Bool -> {A B C : Set} -> Set
test true {A} {_} = A
test false {_} {B = B} = B
Note that for checking where-clauses, still all hidden trailing
parameters are in scope. For instance:
id : {i : Level}{A : Set i} -> A -> A
id = myId
where myId : forall {A} -> A -> A
myId x = x
To be able to fill in the meta variable _1 in
myId : {A : Set _1} -> A -> A
the hidden parameter {i : Level} needs to be in scope.
As a result of this more lazy introduction of implicit parameters,
the following code now passes.
data Unit : Set where
unit : Unit
T : Unit → Set
T unit = {u : Unit} → Unit
test : (u : Unit) → T u
test unit with unit
... | _ = λ {v} → v
Before, Agda would eagerly introduce the hidden parameter {v} as
unnamed left-hand side parameter, leaving no way to refer to it.
The related issue 655 has also been addressed. It is now possible
to make `synonym' definitions
name = expression
even when the type of expression begins with a hidden quantifier.
Simple example:
id2 = id
That resulted in unsolved metas until 2.3.0.
* Agda detects unused arguments and ignores them during equality
checking. [Issue 691, solves also issue 44.]
Agda's polarity checker now assigns 'Nonvariant' to arguments
that are not actually used (except for absurd matches). If
f's first argument is Nonvariant, then f x is definitionally equal
to f y regardless of x and y. It is similar to irrelevance, but
does not require user annotation.
For instance, unused module parameters do no longer get in the way:
module M (x : Bool) where
not : Bool → Bool
not true = false
not false = true
open M true
open M false renaming (not to not′)
test : (y : Bool) → not y ≡ not′ y
test y = refl
Matching against record or absurd patterns does not count as `use',
so we get some form of proof irrelevance:
data ⊥ : Set where
record ⊤ : Set where
constructor trivial
data Bool : Set where
true false : Bool
True : Bool → Set
True true = ⊤
True false = ⊥
fun : (b : Bool) → True b → Bool
fun true trivial = true
fun false ()
test : (b : Bool) → (x y : True b) → fun b x ≡ fun b y
test b x y = refl
More examples in test/succeed/NonvariantPolarity.agda.
Phantom arguments: Parameters of record and data types are considered
`used' even if they are not actually used. Consider:
False : Nat → Set
False zero = ⊥
False (suc n) = False n
module Invariant where
record Bla (n : Nat)(p : False n) : Set where
module Nonvariant where
Bla : (n : Nat) → False n → Set
Bla n p = ⊤
Even though record `Bla' does not use its parameters n and p, they
are considered as used, allowing "phantom type" techniques.
In contrast, the arguments of function `Bla' are recognized as unused.
The following code type-checks if we open Invariant but leaves unsolved
metas if we open Nonvariant.
drop-suc : {n : Nat}{p : False n} → Bla (suc n) p → Bla n p
drop-suc _ = _
bla : (n : Nat) → {p : False n} → Bla n p → ⊥
bla zero {()} b
bla (suc n) b = bla n (drop-suc b)
If `Bla' is considered invariant, the hidden argument in the recursive
call can be inferred to be `p'. If it is considered non-variant, then
`Bla n X = Bla n p' does not entail `X = p' and the hidden argument
remains unsolved. Since `bla' does not actually use its hidden argument,
its value is not important and it could be searched for.
Unfortunately, polarity analysis of `bla' happens only after type
checking, thus, the information that `bla' is non-variant in `p' is
not available yet when meta-variables are solved.
(See test/fail/BrokenInferenceDueToNonvariantPolarity.agda)
* Agda now expands simple definitions (one clause, terminating)
to check whether a function is constructor headed. [Issue 747]
For instance, the following now also works:
MyPair : Set -> Set -> Set
MyPair A B = Pair A B
Vec : Set -> Nat -> Set
Vec A zero = Unit
Vec A (suc n) = MyPair A (Vec A n)
Here, Unit and Pair are data or record types.
Compiler backends
=================
* -Werror is now overridable.
To enable compilation of Haskell modules containing warnings, the
-Werror flag for the MAlonzo backend has been made overridable. If,
for example, --ghc-flag=-Wwarn is passed when compiling, one can get
away with things like:
data PartialBool : Set where
true : PartialBool
{-# COMPILED_DATA PartialBool Bool True #-}
The default behavior remains as it used to be and rejects the above
program.
Tools
=====
Emacs mode
----------
* Asynchronous Emacs mode.
One can now use Emacs while a buffer is type-checked. If the buffer
is edited while the type-checker runs, then syntax highlighting will
not be updated when type-checking is complete.
* Interactive syntax highlighting.
The syntax highlighting is updated while a buffer is type-checked:
• At first the buffer is highlighted in a somewhat crude way
(without go-to-definition information for overloaded
constructors).
• If the highlighting level is "interactive", then the piece of code
that is currently being type-checked is highlighted as such. (The
default is "non-interactive".)
• When a mutual block has been type-checked it is highlighted
properly (this highlighting includes warnings for potential
non-termination).
The highlighting level can be controlled via the new configuration
variable agda2-highlight-level.
* Multiple case-splits can now be performed in one go.
Consider the following example:
_==_ : Bool → Bool → Bool
b₁ == b₂ = {!!}
If you split on "b₁ b₂", then you get the following code:
_==_ : Bool → Bool → Bool
true == true = {!!}
true == false = {!!}
false == true = {!!}
false == false = {!!}
The order of the variables matters. Consider the following code:
lookup : ∀ {a n} {A : Set a} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
lookup xs i = {!!}
If you split on "xs i", then you get the following code:
lookup : ∀ {a n} {A : Set a} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
lookup [] ()
lookup (x ∷ xs) zero = {!!}
lookup (x ∷ xs) (suc i) = {!!}
However, if you split on "i xs", then you get the following code
instead:
lookup : ∀ {a n} {A : Set a} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
lookup (x ∷ xs) zero = ?
lookup (x ∷ xs) (suc i) = ?
This code is rejected by Agda 2.3.0, but accepted by 2.3.2 thanks
to improved coverage checking (see above).
* The Emacs mode now presents information about which module is
currently being type-checked.
* New global menu entry: Information about the character at point.
If this entry is selected, then information about the character at
point is displayed, including (in many cases) information about how
to type the character.
* Commenting/uncommenting the rest of the buffer.
One can now comment or uncomment the rest of the buffer by typing
C-c C-x M-; or by selecting the menu entry "Comment/uncomment the
rest of the buffer".
* The Emacs mode now uses the Agda executable instead of GHCi.
The *ghci* buffer has been renamed to *agda2*.
A new configuration variable has been introduced:
agda2-program-name, the name of the Agda executable (by default
agda).
The variable agda2-ghci-options has been replaced by
agda2-program-args: extra arguments given to the Agda executable (by
default none).
If you want to limit Agda's memory consumption you can add some
arguments to agda2-program-args, for instance +RTS -M1.5G -RTS.
* The Emacs mode no longer depends on haskell-mode.
Users who have customised certain haskell-mode variables (such as
haskell-ghci-program-args) may want to update their configuration.
LaTeX-backend
-------------
An experimental LaTeX-backend which does precise highlighting a la the
HTML-backend and code alignment a la lhs2TeX has been added.
Here is a sample input literate Agda file:
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{agda}
\begin{document}
The following module declaration will be hidden in the output.
\AgdaHide{
\begin{code}
module M where
\end{code}
}
Two or more spaces can be used to make the backend align stuff.
\begin{code}
data ℕ : Set where
zero : ℕ
suc : ℕ → ℕ
_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
zero + n = n
suc m + n = suc (m + n)
\end{code}
\end{document}
To produce an output PDF issue the following commands:
agda --latex -i . .lagda
pdflatex latex/.tex
Only the top-most module is processed, like with lhs2tex and unlike with
the HTML-backend. If you want to process imported modules you have to
call agda --latex manually on each of those modules.
There are still issues related to formatting, see the bug tracker for
more information:
https://code.google.com/p/agda/issues/detail?id=697
The default agda.sty might therefore change in backwards-incompatible
ways, as work proceeds in trying to resolve those problems.
Implemented features:
* Two or more spaces can be used to force alignment of things, like
with lhs2tex. See example above.
* The highlighting information produced by the type checker is used to
generate the output. For example, the data declaration in the example
above, produces:
\AgdaKeyword{data} \AgdaDatatype{ℕ} \AgdaSymbol{:}
\AgdaPrimitiveType{Set} \AgdaKeyword{where}
These latex commands are defined in agda.sty (which is imported by
\usepackage{agda}) and cause the highlighting.
* The latex-backend checks if agda.sty is found by the latex
environment, if it isn't a default agda.sty is copied from Agda's
data-dir into the working directory (and thus made available to the
latex environment).
If the default agda.sty isn't satisfactory (colors, fonts, spacing,
etc) then the user can modify it and make put it somewhere where the
latex environment can find it. Hopefully most aspects should be
modifiable via agda.sty rather than having to tweak the
implementation.
* --latex-dir can be used to change the default output directory.